July 25, 2024

Periodontal (Gum) Disease: Symptoms, Stages, and Treatment


Infection and inflammation in gums are a periodontal disease or Periodontitis. The critical condition of gum disease comes when not treated by doctors properly and causes to loosening of bone and teeth.

Periodontitis disease can be easily prevented by taking care of proper oral hygiene in the mouth.

Proper oral hygiene says brushing your teeth at least twice a day, doing dental floss each day, consistent dental checkup, these are the ways to maintain your proper oral hygiene.

But, in case of serious symptoms, your dentist may also recommend periodontal cleaning.

These tips are good in preventing the development of any oral infection.

This is so because when bacteria reach our mouth through food and produced acid in the mouth, it degrades the outermost mineralized layer of teeth that is enamel, basically acid dissolves all minerals.

So, our focus is not letting bacteria to feed on our teeth and develop infection and inflammation.

In this article, we will be talking about how periodontal infection developed in the oral cavity. Its progression, its stages, how it can be cured, and ways or remedies to not letting infection developed in the mouth.

Stages of Periodontitis or Gum diseases

Initially, Periodontitis starts as a whitish scar on teeth called plaque, slowly it gets worsen over time when not treated.

The beginning of Periodontitis can be seen when gums become red and get bleed easily. Firstly a whitish scar gets formed on teeth that contain bacteria and food debris. Gums become inflamed in this, therefore also known as gingivitis.

The second stages come when a gap is formed between gums and teeth, and in this gap bacteria is present and continuously increasing in number.

Your gums start getting weak and losing their position and become distant from teeth. In this situation, your gums can bleed when you will brush and floss your teeth and little bone loss can also happen.

If you continue to not treating it, then the situation will be more worsen. Now your teeth will start losing their positions and you will experience pain. Your whole body is giving an inflammatory response.

In advanced Periodontitis, the gums, bone, and tissues holding your teeth become destroyed.

Sign and symptoms of Periodontitis

Many people are not aware of having gum disease. As these depend on the stages you are having on your mouth

  • Inflamed red and inflated or fat gums.
  • Bright red gums.
  • Bleeding in gums.
  • Blood visible when sputter.
  • The inflammatory response throughout the body.
  • Teeth and gums become weak and seprated.
  • Pus present in between teeth and gums.
  • Bone loss and teeth loss.
  • Pain when crushing food.
  • Periodontitis causes Bad breath and taste in the mouth.
  • The extra gap developed between teeth.

Causes of Periodontal disease

As there are so many bacteria are present in the mouth of a healthy individual; these do not cause any problem. These are completely normal when are in a limited amount.

Causes of Periodontitis; The reason for gum diseases re so many bacteria are present in the mouth of a healthy individual.
Further Obesity, type II diabetes also causes periodontitis, Pregnancy, genetics and poor nutrition and lack of Vitamin C.

When these get the chance to grow and expand, they cause the problem. This chance comes when dental or oral hygiene is not followed properly.

Not cleaning teeth twice a day regularly, will give bacteria to grow and cause infection. It results in gum disease.

Bacteria and food debris starts deposit initially and forms a whitish scar called plaque.

This plaque further progresses and develop gap and cause teeth loss and gum loss.

There is a distance created between gums and root which creates a pocket called a periodontal pocket. Bacteria grow in this pocket. As a result, Tooth loss is often becoming an unfortunate outcome.

Obesity, type II diabetes also causes periodontitis.

Pregnancy which causes our gums loosens.


Poor nutrition and lack of vitamin C

Risk factors for periodontitis disease

Factors which increases the chances of developing the periodontal disease are mentioned below-

  • Gingivitis or inflammation.
  • Lack of nutrition and vitamin C.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Hormonal imbalances in menopause.
  • Genetics.
  • Smoking or usage of tobacco.
  • Drugs used for hallucinations, or recreation consumption.
  • Being fat.
  • Suffering from diabetes, arthritis, or Crohn’s disease.

Complications of Periodontal disease 

We have seen so far that gum disease causes tooth loss and bone loss. When the bacteria which are destroying your oral cavity reaches in the bloodstream through gums, it can cause infection anywhere in your body.

For instance, it can cause respiratory disease, arthritis, coronary artery disease, and also complications in your blood sugar level.

Periodontal Pocket pain

Weak gums, bones, and tissue supporting teeth start to destroy. In the case of advanced periodontitis, you might be experiencing deep pain while chewing, a foul taste, and bad breath from your mouth.

Prevention of periodontal disease

Does periodontitis cause bad breath?

The only way to prevent diseases is to keep the oral cavity moist and hygienic-

Oral hygiene is very important to prevent risk of periodontitis.

Keep brushing your teeth twice a daily is a good habit. It will also provide the lost minerals as well and also doing flossing twice a day is also important. It removes the food debris present in between the teeth.

Visiting the dentists for regular dental checkups is also important.

Diagnosis of periodontal disease

Your dentist will diagnose the condition of the mouth by measuring the depth of the periodontal pocket in every tooth.

Periodontal pocket depth

Normal depth is 1-3mm, depth of 4mm or more will indicate the diseased condition.

The dentist will also check your habits of smoking and drug abuse and also look if your mouth is dry.

Further, an X-ray can be done if diseases are there to check the bone loss.

Treatment of periodontal disease

Treatment will mainly be performed by a dentist here.

Non-surgical treatments

  1. Scaling: This is how periodontal cleaning done.

This will remove the tartar and bacteria from the tooth surfaces. It is performed using a device such as a laser or ultrasonic devices.

  1. Root planing. This is done to smoothen the root surfaces and clearing up the bulking of bacteria there.

  1. Antibiotics. These are given to kill the bacteria which are causing the infection. Adding of gels that contain antibiotics are given in between the spaces created between gums and teeth.

Surgical treatments

  1. Periodontal pocket surgery– It will be done by a periodontist. Sections of gum will be lifted by making incisions there so that root can be seen and scaling and root planning can be done easily.

  1. Soft tissue grafts. In Periodontitis when you lose your gums, and gums become weak or recede, a part of the tissue from the roof of your palate or donor is taken to recover the receded gums.

  1. Bone grafting: Periodontitis bone grafting is also done to save your teeth. Bone loss causes loose tooths anytime, so it as a synthetic or your bone is used to cover the root. This also provides the chance of growth of the original bone there.


Periodontitis is a disease caused by the accumulation of bacteria in the oral cavity. If you don’t allow the bacteria to live there for more time gum diseases will not be developed.

Do brushing and flossing regularly.

Use mouthwashes to raise your mouth daily. Go for regular dental checkups. With signs of serious issues, your dentist may recommend periodontal cleaning.

In case you already have gum disease in your mouth, regular oral hygiene can save your teeth.


Moving downtown through the crowded roads of India, Aishwarya Gupta got an amazing idea of making her passion and medical knowledge helpful to others. When she is not busy with her blogs, you can find her inside the gym or lost in some interesting book.